Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
- Basic Botanical Data of Peanut.
- Peanuts:Arachis hypogaea L.
- Whole Plant Description of Peanut.
- Distribution of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut:Eco-geographic Distribution.
- Taxonomy of genus Arachis.
- History and Origin of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut.
- Peanut: Phytochemicals and nutrients.
- Uses of Arachis hypogaea L.Peanut,groundnut.
- Folk Medicine and Medicinal Uses of Peanut.
- Cooking Peanut.
- Optimization of extraction methods for identification of selected phytochemicals in peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
- Research Update:Peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
Peanut: Phytochemicals and nutrients.:
Peanuts are high in protein, but not complete. They lack the essential amino acids, tryptophan, methionine, and cystine. By combining peanuts with grains, the protein becomes complete~which kids have instinctively known for years preferring peanut butter sandwiches to anything else! By eating that sandwich with a fruit high in vitamin C, the hard-to-absorb ferrous type of iron, found in these foods, will be changed to the easier-to-absorb ferric iron. The fats in peanuts are primarily unsaturated, and the content is about 50%. They are also good sources of vitamins E and the B complex (except B12), calcium, iron, and potassium. However, much of the thiamin and B6 is lost when they are roasted. Ounce for ounce, peanuts have nearly three times as much potassium as fresh oranges. They also have about twice as much starch as sugar and are a good source of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, and gums, as well as the noncarbohydrate food fiber lignin, which is found in stems, leaves, seeds, and seed coverings on fresh or roasted peanuts.
Shelled, uncooked, seeds are reported to contain approximately per 100 g: over 500 calories, 4~13 g moisture, 21.0~36.4 g protein, 35.8~54.2 g fat, 6.0~24.9 g total carbohydrate, 1.2~4.3 g fiber, 1.8~3.1 g ash, 49 mg Ca, 409 mg P, 3.8 mg Fe, 15 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.79 mg thiamine, 0.14 mg riboflavin, 15.5 mg niacin, and 1 mg ascorbic acid. Roasted seeds contain in broad average figures per 100 g: 595 calories, 1.8 g moisture, 23.2 g protein, 50.9 g fat, 21.7 g total carbohydrate, 3.2 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 42 mg Ca, 354 mg P, 0.45 mg thiamine, 0.11 mg riboflavin, and 15.3 mg niacin. Boiled seeds contain per 100 g: 235 calories, 44.6 g moisture, 16.8 g protein, 8.3 g fat, 26.3 g total carbohydrate, 6.1 g fiber, 4.0 g ash, 45 mg Ca, 260 mg P, 5.1 mg Fe, 0.44 mg thiamine, 0.16 mg riboflavin, and 1.4 mg niacin. Raw leaves contain per 100 g: 69 calories, 78.5 g moisture, 4.4 g protein, 0.6 g fat, 14.9 g total carbohydrate, 4.6 g fiber, 1.6 g ash, 262 mg Ca, 82 mg P, 4.2 mg Fe, 7,735 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.23 mg thiamine, 0.58 mg riboflavin, 1.6 mg niacin, and 98 mg ascorbic acid.
The oilseed cake is said to be a good source of arginine and glutamic acid, used in treating mental deficiencies (Perry, 1980). Hager's Handbook (List and Horhammer, 1969~1979) states that seeds contain 20~30% nitrogenous matter, 2~5% cellulose, 8~21% starch, a-cephalin, xanthine, glutathione, D- and g-tocopherol, arginine, guanosine, chorine, lecithin, saccharose, conglutin, conarachin, L-(-)-cystine, sarkosine, biotin, thiamin, vitamin P, conenzyme A, a-ketoglutaric- and g-methylent-a-ketoglutaric acid, traces of 4-methyleneproline, allantoinase, phospholipase D, isocitratylase, fumarase, etc. Yoshida and Hasegawa (1977) report 2.14 nmol/g atizolamine (1-methyl-3-guanidino-6-hydroxymethylpyrazine-2-one) in the seeds. The testa contains arachidoside, leucocyanadin, and leucodelphinidin. Analyses of the haulms from South Africa showed 9.9% CP, 21.1% CP, 9.3% ash, 2.4% EE, 57.3% NFE, 1.48% Ca, and 0.08% P. The testa (skins from India) contained 12.1% CP, 7.1% CF, 16.7% ash, 46.3% EE, 0.24% Ca, and 0.14% P. Hulls from Nigeria contained 4.9% CP, 68.4% CF, 7.4% ash, 0.6% EE, and 18.7% NFE.
The so-called germ, a byproduct of the manufacture of peanut butter contains 3.0% CP, 2.0% CF, 3.0% ash, 46.0% EE, and 46.0% NFE, all these on a zero-moisture basis (Gohl, 1981).
Peanuts pack more protein than tree nuts, consisting of 20 to 30% protein, 5 to 15% carbohydrate, and 40 to 50% oil or fat. In fact, they are so nutritious that producer Billy Rose survived on one 5-cent bag of peanuts a day for three days when all he had to live on was 15 cents.
Dry roasted, unsalted peanuts are a powerhouse of protein, though not a complete protein, providing 7 grams for only 1 ounce. While it's easy to indulge in peanut pleasures, keep in mind that each ounce has 170 calories and 14 grams of fat, 2 of them saturated.
Dry roasted, unsalted peanuts contain the important B vitamins, B1, B2, and B3. Niacin, vitamin B3, is extraordinarily plentiful with 1 ounce registering 3.80 mg., while folic acid measures in at a whopping 41.2 mcg. Even vitamin B6 appears with trace amounts measuring .07 mg.
The minerals calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, and zinc are all part of the nutritional make-up that give peanuts a thumbs up.
Raw peanuts also provide 7 grams of protein for 1 ounce, with the same fat content and 162 calories. This quantity provides 2.8 g of fiber, while the dry roasted offers 2.67 g. Raw peanuts also have a natural sodium content of 2 mg for 1 ounce, with the dry roasted peanuts registering less than .5 mg.
The B vitamins in raw peanuts register only minimally higher than the dry roasted with the exception of their folic acid content listed at 68 mcg for 1 ounce. Calcium, iron, and potassium are also slightly higher in raw peanuts than the figures for dry roasted.
Let's look at the numbers for peanut butter. A two tablespoon serving of the natural, unsalted, crunchy style piles up 190 calories, with 8 grams of protein, and 16 grams of fat. The saturated fat content varies between 1 and 3 grams in different brands.
Peanut butter's B vitamins are well endowed with niacin registering 4.40 mg and folic acid climbing to 29.4 mcg. While all the minerals show healthy quantities, potassium stands out at 214 mg for the two tablespoon serving.
Francis G. Benedict, author of The Energy Requirements of Intense Mental Effort, enlightens us with this, "The extra calories needed for an hour of intense mental effort would be completely met by the eating of one oyster cracker or one-half of a salted peanut."
- 1.Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
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